What Does a Healthy Hoof Look Like?

I’ve written on several occasions about the common problems we see in hooves, but I realized I hadn’t yet dedicated a blog post to healthy hooves. Would you recognize a healthy hoof if you saw it? Surprisingly, many people probably wouldn’t– this was me, too, not all that long ago. The sad fact is that unhealthy hooves are much more common than healthy ones these days, and many people, professionals included, have come view this as normal.

And while it’s true that there is no one-size-fits all perfect hoof, there are certain characteristics that healthy hooves will have.

Now of course, I’m looking at this from a barefoot standpoint. I do not think a shod hoof can be completely healthy. If you disagree with me, that’s fine, but I’m just stating this up front before you read on!

So what exactly does a healthy hoof look like?

First of all, let’s start with the shape. Now this will vary some depending on environment and the individual horse, but the front feet should have a more rounded appearance while the back feet, a more oval shape. Each pair of hooves on a horse (front or back) may not be perfectly symmetrical, but they should be balanced and level on the ground.

The toe should be fairly short. Pete Ramey says about 3 to 3 1/2 inches in length. The heel should be short as well, but this length will vary between horses. Some may be sit 2 or more inches off the ground while others appear to almost sit flat on the ground.


Photo courtesy of Penzance Integrative Hoofcare

Photo courtesy of Penzance Integrative Hoofcare


The hoof wall is the outer part of the hoof–the part we can easily see when the horse has all four feet on the ground. The wall should be somewhat shiny and smooth (unless the horse lives on abrasive terrain), with no rings, waves, or cracks. The horn tubules should run in a straight line toward the ground.


Tulsa's feet 2


Toe extends in a straight line from coronary band.


As for the bottom of the hoof, the sole should be hard and somewhat dense. It should also be concave, more so in the back hooves. Again, a lot will depend on the environment here, and horses which move over rougher terrain will have a tougher sole than those which live on grass or soft ground. The white line around the outer edge should be tight and not stretched.


Photo courtesy of Penzance Integrative Hoofcare


The bars should run about halfway down the frog and should be noticeable but not overgrown or folded over.

The frog in a healthy hoof should make up 50-60% of the length of the hoof. As usual, environment is a factor, but a healthy frog should be robust, tough, and have the consistency of rubber or leather. The frog should also make contact with the ground. (This can only happen if the heels are kept short and the horse is not shod.) The central sulcus (crevice in center of frog) should be shallow. (If it’s deep, this is often an indicator of thrush.)


Before Trim



Of course, creating healthy hooves in domestic horses is often easier said than done. Like many of you, I’ve had my share of problems over the years. You cannot force a hoof to be healthy through trimming or hoof creams or oils. It’s something that needs to come from the inside out.  Diet, environment, and movement are all key factors, and if even one piece of the puzzle is missing, the hooves will usually pay.

But this should at least give you an idea of what to look for when deciding if your horse’s hooves are at optimal health. If you have questions/ comments, feel free to post!






Sources and Further Reading:

What is a Healthy Hoof and What Does it Look Like?

Is the Hoof Smart? Adaptability of the Equine Foot

Toe and Heel Length

Barefoot Hoof Diagrams




Hi! My name is Casie Bazay. I'm a mom, a freelance writer, and a certified equine acupressure practitioner.

You may also like...

3 Responses

  1. Kathy says:

    Good summary! Also, hooves that live on flat ground will not be as concave as those that have varied terrain (elevation and footing changes).

  2. Penny says:

    I agree that is a good simple summary. Although I would add that bars can become a significant discomfort over time. It is important that if you don’t have abrasive terrain with 24//7 movement (and a reason to move) then the horse will need help to maintain comfortable functional hoofcare.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *